How to handle references and citations

A simple system of in-line references and bibliography is available to authors for all types of content (including manuscripts, manuscript invitations, review reports, ideas, author’s replies, and editor’s correspondences). It automatically formats all citations and the bibliography table when displaying the web page.

Our BibTex references converter will convert all your references in the required format. This converter accepts references in the standard BibTex format. If you use another bibliography software than BibTex, export first your references in the BibTex format from your bibligraphy software.

References’ information can be either provided as a list for all references at the top of the manuscript using the general syntax:

[ref add id="…" media="…" keyword1="…" keyword2="…" keyword3="…" /]
[ref add id="…" media="…" keyword1="…" keyword2="…" keyword3="…" /]

or introduced directly in-line where it is first cited using the general syntax:

your text… [ref id="…" media="…" keyword1="…" keyword2="…" keyword3="…" /] …your text continues

The identifyer in id="…" can be freely chosen but must uniquely identify the reference in the text. An example could be id=”authorname2013a”.

Once the reference’s information is provided somewhere in the text, you can cite it in the following part of the text using the syntax:

[ref id="…" /]

To cite multiple references in a row, use the syntax:

[ref id="…" list="first" /][ref id="…" list="within" /][ref id="…" list="last" /]

The bibliography table should be introduced at the bottom of the text using the following syntax:

[ref footnote display /]     (Ignore this line if not using footnotes)
[ref display /]
[ref clearall /]

Note that all statements provided on this page can be copied and pasted to your text editor for further editing.

Here is what automatically happens when your text displays on the web page:

  1. A reference is silently recorded upon encountering “[ref add … /]”;
  2. A reference is recorded and a citation phrase is displayed upon encountering “[ref … /]”;
  3. The citation phrase of a recorded reference is displayed upon encountering “[ref id="…" /]”;
  4. A sorted bibliographic table of all recorded references is displayed in place of “[ref display /] [ref clearall /]”.

The style of the citation phrase and of the entry in the bibliographic table depends on the type of reference. We have several possible types of references that are designated by the keyword media. To these types of references correspond specific sets of keywords that should be used to enter the needed information. They are summarized here:

Types of references

NB: Keywords in rounded brackets are optional, remove if not used; remove all rounded brackets before use.

Articles from scientific journals [ref add id=" " media="article" author=" " title=" " title_periodical=" " volume=" " (issue=" ") pages=" " (doi=" ") year=" " /]
Articles from periodicals or magazines [ref add id=" " media="periodical" author=" " title=" " title_periodical=" " volume=" " (issue=" ") pages=" " (doi=" ") day=" " month=" " year=" " /]
Articles from newspapers [ref add id=" " media="newspaper" author=" " title=" " title_periodical=" " pages=" " day=" " month=" " year=" " /]
Books [ref add id=" " media="book" author=" " book_title=" " (edition=" ") (title_series=" ") volume=" " editor=" " publisher=" " (pages=" ") (doi=" ") year=" " /]
Sections or chapters of books [ref add id=" " media="booksection" author=" " title=" " book_title=" " (edition=" ") editor=" " publisher=" " pages=" " (doi=" ") year=" " /]
Papers (talks or posters) presented at conferences [ref add id=" " media="conference" author=" " title=" " conference=" " (day=" ") month=" " year=" " (url=" ") /]
Articles from the proceedings of a conference [ref add id=" " media="proceedings" author=" " title=" " title_proceedings=" " conference=" " pages=" " (doi=" ") year=" " /]
Reports, theses, dissertations, etc. [ref add id=" " media="report" author=" " title=" " report_designation=" " institution=" " pages=" " year=" " /]
Web pages [ref add id=" " media="webpage" (author=" ") (title=" ") publisher=" " (day=" ") month=" " year=" " url=" " /]
Wikipedia [ref add id=" " media="wikipedia" title=" " (day=" ") month=" " year=" " url=" " /]
Blogs [ref add id=" " media="blog" author=" " title=" " (day=" ") month=" " year=" " url=" " /]
Videos [ref add id=" " media="video" (author=" ") title=" " (day=" ") month=" " year=" " url=" " /]

Examples on how to fill the different keywords

id= "Author123"
Note: Use any reference number or set of characters helping you identify this reference in the text.
author= "Author1 A. C." or "Author1 A. C., Author2 B., Author3 T. J."
Note: Enter the last name followed by the first name’s initials. For long lists of authors, please only enter the 10 first author names.
title= "A title of article"
Note: Use the original title as provided by the journal or book with same upper case / lower case etc… In case the reference points to a page on the Internet and there is no proper title, then just enter the exact url address using the url keyword (see below).
title_periodical= "Journal of Geophysical Sciences"
Note: Do not use abbreviations, even for standard ones in usage in science, but enter the full name of the journal.
title_proceedings= "A title of proceedings"
conference= "European Geosciences Association, General Assembly X, Vienna, Austria"
Note: Do not use abbreviations, include the sponsor and the location.
book_title= "A book title"
title_series "The name of a book series"
edition= "6"
Note: Simply enter the edition number.
editor= "Editor1 R. P., Editor2 T. U."
Note: Enter the last name followed by the first name’s initials. For long lists of editors, please only enter the 10 first names.
report_designation= "Ph. D. thesis"
Note: Use this field to designate the type of “report”, whether a thesis, a dissertation, a technical report, etc…
institution= "University of Mainland, City, Country"
Note: Enter the name and location of the institution.
publisher= "Tracy and Richard Publishers, City, Country"
Note: Enter the name of the publisher and the publication place.
volume= "12"
Note: Simply enter the volume number.
issue= "3"
Note: Simply enter the issue number.
pages= "333-787" or "1250" or "D109123"
Note: For articles and book sections, enter the beginning and ending pages, except when an article number exists. In this case, enter here the article number and use the “doi” keyword for the DOI number. For books, enter the total number of pages.
day= "18"
Note: Simply enter the day number.
month= "February"
Note: Enter the full name of the month (no abbreviations, no number).
year= "2014"
Note: Enter the full number of the year.
url= "" or ""
Note: Include a URL address for documents that have been downloaded from the Internet. Use permalinks when possible. When entering a URL address, it is required to provide the access time using the keywords month and year, and when possible the day as well.
doi= "10.1042/XXXXX.XX"
Note: Do not include "".